If we want to have a general definition for a smart home, we would say that the “smart home” is generally referred to a house in which the equipment of the house is interconnected with each other and their surroundings and that all equipment is controlled by a central system. In other words, a smart home is a home that its inhabitants can control all of the smart home appliances remotely and closely, and they can define different scenarios for each one.
Due to the limited resources of energy and in order to move towards sustainable development and preservation of environment, it should be prevented from using excessive energy by providing practical and cost effective solutions.
In 1993, $ 58.9 billion was spent as a subsidy on energy, with a building contribution of $ 23.5 billion. The statistics show that energy savings in buildings is one of the most important issues in the country’s sustainable development plan.
According to the Iranian Energy Statistics Center, energy consumption in the administrative, residential and commercial units of the country is about 45% of the total energy supplied. These figures show the heavy responsibility of country construction contractors and the importance of providing energy saving solutions by updating building systems. Certainly they cannot be realized using traditional methods. Understanding the necessity of using smart building equipment requires extreme culturalizing. At first glance, it is costly and unnecessary to equip building with smart systems, but with a deeper look we can see that energy consumption would be reduced in a short time obviously, and water, gas and electricity bills will decline.
A smart home will consist of a number of different parts that, with coordination and communication, will bring desired conditions for optimal energy consumption.
The first part of a smart home is the operator’s equipment, or the system’s input. The function of this equipment is to receive information including touch screen, smartphone, presence sensors, temperature sensors and air quality sensors.
The information processing unit is the second part of this system. Consider a room that we want to have the same brightness throughout the day and night. According to the processing unit information, all lights are turned off during the day, and then the lighting system will be activated along with dimming sunlight.
Outputs are the third part of a smart home that provide timing functions and considerations for building controller components and equipment, and using pre-given information and control logics allows them to perform intended commands by analyzing information.
Research shows that in smart homes, with the help of presence sensors and time scheduling in ventilation systems, more than 20% can be saved in gas consumption, and also in the electrical energy topic, it is possible to save more than 30% of energy consumption using brightness sensor and time scheduling in presence sensor and by controlling the curtains.